It also enjoys turning househusbands into afternoon talk show guests.
Sex role self-concept appears to be more important for feminine product perceptions than masculine product perceptions. However, attempts to differentiate working and non-working women, as well as women with traditional and non-traditional attitudes has not resulted in clear distinctions in behavior.
An alternative approach would be to differentiate women on the basis of sex role self-concept. Further, consideration of sex role self-concept is not only germane for females, but relevant tone other 49 percent of our population: Sex role self-concept has been studied within the psychology literature in a wide variety of contexts ranging from success orientation to male and female attraction BemBieliauskas and MilesellDeusch and GilbertFeather and RephelsonGordon and HallJordan-Viola, et.
Marketing investigations, however, have been limited. Three studies were found in the marketing literature which operationalized some measure of sex-role self-concept.
Fry, also found that behavior was consistent with masculine-feminine self image. And, Morris and Cundiff found that males with a relatively high feminine identity and a high level of anxiety expressed strongly unfavorable attitudes toward the use of hair spray perceived as feminine.
Marketers have more extensively studied the relationship between consumer behavior and the global self-concept BirdwellDolichGrubb and HuppGrubb and GrothwohlHamm and CundiffHughes and GeurreroLandon In the midst of varying methodologies and different focuses, some studies support the congruence while others do not.
However, the potential relationship between self-concept and consumer behavior cannot at present be negated. Focus upon a specific aspect of the self-concept for both the product and the respondent may reveal relationships indiscernible by global congruency attempts. Following from self theory and buyer behavior it would be expected that there would be a congruency between sex role self-concept, product perceptions on masculine and feminine dimensions and product use.
Further, the sex of the respondent may impact upon this congruency. Similarly, a person whose self-perceptions contain large amounts of both masculine and feminine traits androgynous may use products perceived as being of either sex-type.
Will product perceptions and use tend to be congruent with the sex of the respondent or the sex role self-concept? The self-esteem of the individual may provide insight into this question again, no cause and effect relationships implied. Self-esteem has been shown to be related to sex role self-concept Spence, Helmreich and Stapp For both males and females, androgynous persons were highest in self-esteem, followed by high masculine low feminine persons, then low masculine high feminine persons, and lowest in self-esteem were persons with no strong identity with either sex.
Although in this study the cross-sex typed persons were not the group with the lowest self-esteem, within cross-sex typed groups of people variances in self-esteem may help to explain the relationship between sex-typed product perceptions, product use and sex or sex role self-concept.
Purpose and Objectives This is an exploratory study designed to investigate the influence of sex role self-concept upon product perceptions. In addition, this study investigates the influence of sex, product use and self-esteem upon masculine and feminine perceptions of products.
Five products are included in the investigation: These products represent masculine-typed products, feminine typed products and a neuter-typed low masculine and feminine identity product. Due to the exploratory nature of this research, the following research objectives are advanced in lieu of formal hypotheses: To investigate the congruency between sex role self-concept and sex-typing of products; 2.
To determine the individual and combined effects of sex, use and self-esteem upon sex-typing of products; 3. To determine differences in the relationships between sex role self-concept, sex, use and self-esteem for varying types of products, and 4.
To investigate self-esteem differences across sex role self-concept categories. METHODOLOGY In order to determine the sex-typed perceptions of products to be tested, a pre-test sample of 80 male and female business students were administered a questionnaire listing generic product categories ranging from nylon underwear to brief case.
Under the name of each product were two scales: The horizontal five-point scales had extremes labeled extremely masculine and feminine and not at all masculine and feminine.
The purpose of this pre-test was to sort products into nine groups: The results of this pre-test indicated that the products fell into one of three groups: In addition, respondents indicated difficulty in understanding that the mid-point on the scale was "moderate" masculinity or femininitynot "neuter", and in being able to keep track of their frame of reference when both the masculine and feminine scales were presented together underneath the product.
Due to these comments and because the vast majority of the products fell into the medium masculine-medium feminine group, a second pre-test was conducted. On the second pre-test a few product changes were made, but the questionnaire was altered considerably.Jan 23, · We asked a group of men how they felt about the concept of masculinity, Expert analysis and commentary to make sense of today's biggest stories.
This Is What Masculinity Really Means To Men. In today society the masculinity and femininity of society have played a great role on how people interact and get along. An Analysis of Representation of Masculinity in Music Magazines. MASS MEDIA AND SOCIETY (2) The concept of ‘mass’ The ideas of ‘mass society’ date from the s but before that time.
Article 7 Gendered Media: The Influence of Media on Views of Gender Julia T. Wood Department of Communication, Universityof North times more often than ones about women (“Study Re- Carolina at ChapelHill ports Sex Bias,” THEMES IN MEDIA.
In most media portrayals, male characters are rewarded for self-control and the control of others, aggression and violence, financial independence, and physical desirability. Families, friends, teachers, and community leaders all play a role in helping boys define what it means to be a man.
Throwback masculinity dominates other media as well, with The Dangerous Book for Boys Today women still serve as teachers, nurses, and social workers. the concept of masculinity had always.
In contemporary America, hegemonic masculinity is defined by physical strength and bravado, exclusive heterosexuality, suppression of "vulnerable" emotions such as remorse and uncertainty, economic independence, authority over women and other men, and intense interest in sexual "conquest".