Neepa Majumdar combines readings of specific films and stars with an analysis of the historical and cultural configurations that gave rise to distinctly Indian notions of celebrity. Rather, it was through emphatically nationalist discourses that Indian cinema found its model for modern female identities. Beginning with a history of the idea of stardom in India, Majumdar considers questions of spectatorship, gossip, and popularity as they pertain to two popular stars, Sulochana and Fearless Nadia, who occupied the highbrow and lowbrow ends of the spectrum of stardom in the s and evoked very different fan responses.
Tap dance, style of dance in which a dancer wearing shoes fitted with heel and toe taps sounds out audible beats by rhythmically striking the floor or any other hard surface.
Early history Tap originated in the United States through the fusion of several ethnic percussive dances, primarily African tribal dances and Scottish, Irish, and English clog dance s, hornpipes, and jig s.
In the late 20th century, however, researchers suggested that tap instead was nurtured in such urban environments as the Five Points District in New York Citywhere a variety of ethnic groups lived side by side under crowded conditions and in constant contact with the distinctly urban rhythms and syncopations of the machine age.
In the mid- to late s, dance competitions were a common form of entertainment. One of the earliest recorded such challenges took place in between black dancer William Henry Laneknown as Master Juba, and Irish dancer John Diamond.
The primary showcase for tap of this era was the minstrel showwhich was at its peak from approximately to During the following decades, styles of tap dancing evolved and merged.
Among the ingredients that went into the mix were buck dancing a dance similar to but older than the clog dancesoft-shoe dancing a relaxed, graceful dance done in soft-soled shoes and made popular in vaudevilleand buck-and-wing dancing a fast and flashy dance usually done in wooden-soled shoes and combining Irish clogging styles, high kicks, and complex African rhythms and steps such as the shuffle and slide; it is the forerunner of rhythm tap.
Tap dance was a particularly dynamic art form, and dancers continually molded and shaped it. Dancers such as Harland Dixon and Jimmy Doyle a duo known for their buck-and-wing dancing impressed audiences and influenced developing dancers with their skill, ingenuity, and creativity. Early recordings of tap dancers demonstrate that their syncopation s were actually years ahead of the rhythms in popular music.
Vaudeville In Decline of stardom and emergence of early 20th century, vaudeville variety shows moved to the entertainment forefront, and tap dancers such as Greenlee and Drayton, Pat Rooney, Sr.
A number of family acts formed, including that of the future Broadway actor, producer, and songwriter George M. Cohanwho with his sister, mother, and father formed the Four Cohans.
The Covan brothers together with their wives formed the Four Covans, one of the most sensational fast tap acts ever.
The comedian and dancer Eddie Foy, Sr. By the late s, more than theatres around the country hosted vaudeville acts. Cook and Brown had one of the finest knockabout acts. King, King, and King danced in convict outfits, chained together doing close-to-the-floor fast tap work.
Will Mahoney tap-danced on a giant xylophone. It filtered into many theatrical acts. Possibly the finest exponents of the challenge were the Four Step Brothers, whose act consisted of furious, flying steps, then a moment when each attempted to top the others.
From the outset, tap dancers have stretched the art form, dancing to a wide variety of music and improvising new styles. Among these innovative styles were flash dance movements that incorporated acrobatics and were often used to finish a dance ; novelty the incorporation into a routine of specialty props, such as jump ropes, suitcases, and stairs ; eccentriclegomania, and comedy each of which used the body in eccentric and comic ways to fool the eye and characteristically involved wild and wiggly leg movements ; swing tap, also known as classical tap combining the upper body movement found in 20th-century ballet and jazz with percussive, syncopated footwork, a style used extensively in the movies ; class precision dancing performed by impeccably dressed dancers ; military the use of military marching and drum rhythms ; and rhythm, close floor, and paddle and roll each of which emphasized footwork using heel and toe taps, typically of a rapid and rhythmic nature.
For each one of these styles there were hundreds of dancers creating a unique version.
After losing his leg at age 12, he reinvented tap to fit his own specifications—a peg and a shoe with two taps. The Nicholas Brothers in Orchestra Wives The white circuit included such prestigious routes as the Orpheum Circuit and such acts as that of Fred and Adele Astaire.
With the help of a few open-minded booking agents, African American entertainers eventually broke the colour line by sheer determination and skill. Bill Robinson is credited with being the first African American solo entertainer to perform in big-time vaudeville shows. Although the technology for sound on film had been around for several years, it was not until The Jazz Singer that the public accepted this new medium.
The advent of sound enabled entire acts of many popular vaudeville tap dancers to be captured on film.
They extended the possibilities of tap once more by creating entirely new material specifically intended for film. Working closely with directors and cinematographers, Fred Astaire was the first major film dancer to insist that there be few, if any, cutaways and that the camera follow him, head to toe, throughout his numbers.
He set the standard for how tap dance was shot during the next three decades.
Despite the Great Depressionenrollment soared at tap dance schools throughout the country. From the s to the early s, musical films and stage shows served to distract the public from bleak social conditions brought on by events such as the Great Depression and World War II.
Every major studio featured tap dancers: Ruby Keeler as ingenue Peggy Sawyer, with others of the cast, in the backstage musical 42nd Street Though vaudeville was on the wane by the mids and dead by the s, tap dancers continued to be popular acts in nightclubs and musical shows.
The popularity of tap dancing began to decline in the s. This change is often attributed to a series of events in the s. In Agnes de Mille introduced narrative ballet into the Broadway show with Oklahoma!.A supermodel (also spelled super-model and super model) is a highly paid fashion model who usually has a worldwide reputation and often a background in haute couture and commercial modeling.
The term supermodel became prominent in the popular culture of the s and 90s.. Supermodels usually work for prominent fashion designers and clothing yunusemremert.com may have multimillion-dollar contracts.
A list of the best classic rock songs, but each legendary band only gets one selection. Beginning with an overview of benshi stardom from their early popularity with audiences through their institutionalization within the industry in to their ultimate decline by the late s, in chapter 1 Fujiki situates benshi within an exhibition-based structure.
The remaining members of Omega, meanwhile, succeeded in achieving stardom in Germany, and remained very popular for a time. The s see the emergence of new different genres, while the classic rock remained in the background. Decline The decline of the Hungarian indie started in the s, although the most notable bands .
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