It can be declared as an emergency in Africa because it has reached unprecedented proportions. The HIV virus destroys the immune system which makes humans vulnerable to many infections which can lead them to death. It took a long period of time for African political leaders to recognise the crisis nature of the epidemic and to formulate ways in which to resolve the crisis and to use all available resources to address the emergency. President Thabo Mbeki disapproved the use of antiretroviral to prevent mother-to-child transmission on the grounds and in contrast to existing scientific evidence that their efficiency had not been established.
Links Introduction Many adolescents engage in sexual intercourse with multiple partners and without condoms. Among sexually experienced people, adolescents aged 15 to 19 years have some of the highest reported rates of STDs.
In addition, particular groups of adolescents eg, males who have sex with males, injection drug users, and teens who have sex for drugs engage in even greater risk-taking behavior.
Some of these programs have been effective at changing behavior, while others have not.
This chapter presents data on adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior, reviews the studies measuring the impact of adolescent prevention programs, and identifies common characteristics of programs that have been effective in reducing sexual risk-taking behavior. It recommends a that these effective school and community programs be implemented more broadly, b that promising clinic programs and comprehensive community-wide campaigns be replicated and evaluated, and c that additional programs focusing on high-risk youth be implemented and evaluated.
Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior In many countries throughout the world, sexually transmitted disease and unplanned pregnancy have always occurred among adolescents. However, during the last century, and especially during the last few decades of that century, the onset of puberty and initiation of sexual intercourse occurred at decreasing ages in many industrialized countries, whereas the average age of marriage increased.
Thus, many adolescents began having sexual intercourse with multiple sexual partners prior to marriage, and this, of course, facilitated STD and HIV transmission. In many countries, a significant proportion of young people initiate sexual activity by age Among students in grades across the U.
These networks are often defined by ethnicity, class, geographic location, and other socially defined norms. Sometimes these networks do not connect with each other. Use of Condoms Condoms are recognized as an especially important form of contraception, because they are currently the only form of contraception that prevents the transmission of most STDs.
However, condom use varies with urban area, age, ethnicity, gender, and involvement in other risk-taking behaviors, and this national average obscures wide variations in different groups.
In young people, for example, condom use declines with age, and is higher among African-Americans than European-Americans. According to some estimates, both ulcerative and nonulcerative STDs increase HIV transmission risks as much as 3- to 5-fold.
Similarly, female teenagers have the highest age-specific rate of gonorrhea, whereas male teenagers have the third highest rate.
About half of all new HIV infections worldwide, or approximately 6, per day, occur among young people. Despite the challenges of determining at what ages HIV infection occurs, the U.
Office of National AIDS Policy has estimated that half of all new HIV infections occur in people under 25 and that half of these occur among young people between the ages of 13 and Among adolescents agedolder adolescents, males, and members of racial minorities have the highest infection rates.
Among both males and females, the risk category was often unidentified. Conclusions About Adolescent Risk and Implications for Programs Adolescents, in general, are at risk of contracting HIV through sexual transmission, because a large majority engage in sexual intercourse, have multiple partners over a period of time, and fail to consistently use a condom during every act of intercourse.
On the other hand, in the United States, most of these adolescents are actually at relatively low risk, because they rarely, if ever, have sex with people who are HIV infected.
In contrast, adolescents in countries where HIV infection is widespread are at much higher risk of contracting HIV through sexual intercourse, as are adolescents in low-prevalence countries who have unprotected intercourse with members of very high-risk groups eg, males who have sex with other males or injection drug users.
In addition, there are some adolescents who engage in very frequent unprotected sex for drugs, and thereby greatly increase their risk, both by having frequent unprotected sex and by having sex with partners in high-risk groups.
These high-risk groups are somewhat bounded by social networks, but this may change. Finally, some adolescents are at risk of contracting HIV through sharing needles used to inject drugs.
These patterns have important implications for educational programs. First, they suggest that there should be effective HIV education programs for all young people. Furthermore, they suggest that there should be additional, more focused programs targeting those groups of adolescents who are at higher risk of HIV infection.
Educational programs for school-aged males should adequately address the risks of unprotected intercourse among males who may have sex with males, while programs for young women and female adolescents in the United States should address the special threat of unprotected heterosexual intercourse with injection drug users and the exchange of sex for drugs.
Finally, programs should address drug use and needle sharing. Programs for some of those subgroups of young people who are particularly at risk eg, males who have sex with males, injection drug users, and racial minoritiesare discussed in separate chapters.
The remainder of this chapter reviews programs designed to reduce sexual risk-taking among adolescents in general in the United States.
In addition, programs have tried to reach parents and their adolescent children in their homes, whereas others have used social marketing and media approaches. As long ago as the early s there was concern that young people were having premarital sex and that the rates of "venereal disease" VD were increasing.Why HIV/AIDS education?
Each year there are more and more new HIV infections, which shows that people either aren't learning the message about the dangers of HIV, or are unable or unwilling to act on it.
Many people are dangerously ignorant about the virus - a survey found recently that a third of teens thought there was a 'cure'. Prevention of aids essays. by Causes of aids epidemic essay Causes of aids epidemic essay word count university essays online schizophrenia positive and negative symptoms essay about myself essay college life is interesting quotes essayer luft kaufvertrag jazz concert review essay.
By the end of , at least schools made condoms available to students. Although making condoms available in schools remains very controversial, 65% of the U.S. adult population supports condom availability in schools to prevent the transmission of HIV/AIDS.
Published: Tue, 16 May Comment On Marketing Strategies Of India And Brazil Of Condoms To Prevent Aids.
Aids have turned out to be an anathema for our planet earth as it mushrooming rapidly. Global Health & HIV Global Health Issue It is a small World: HIV / AIDS and Global Health It is a small World: HIV / AIDS and Global Health The purpose of this essay is to discuss in detail the HIV / AIDS issue and its different aspects and impacts on global level.
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