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Universities Classroom management is the orchestration of the learning environment of a group of individuals within a classroom setting.
In the early s classroom management was seen as separate from classroom instruction. Teachers' management decisions were viewed as precursors to instruction, and were treated in the literature as if they were content-free.
The image was of a teacher first attending to classroom management, and then beginning instruction without School based management reference to management decisions. Research in the s, however, demonstrated that management and instruction are not separate, but are inextricably interwoven and complex.
A teacher's classroom-management system communicates information about the teacher's beliefs on content and the learning process. It also circumscribes the kinds of instruction that will take place in a particular classroom. A classroom in which the teacher takes complete responsibility for guiding students' actions constitutes a different learning environment than one in which students are encouraged and taught to assume responsibility for their own behaviors.
Content will be approached and understood differently in each of these settings. Furthermore, more intellectually demanding academic work and activities in which students create products or encounter novel problems require complex management decisions.
This correlation between instructional activity and management complexity further reinforces the School based management nature of classroom management and curriculum. The interwoven nature of classroom management and classroom instruction is especially easy to see from a student perspective. Students have at least two cognitive demands on them at all times: This means that students must simultaneously work at understanding the content and finding appropriate and effective ways to participate in order to demonstrate that understanding.
The teacher must facilitate the learning of these academic and social tasks. Thus from the perspective of what students need to know in order to be successful, management and instruction cannot be separated.
As a result of this broadened definition of classroom management, research has moved away from a focus on controlling behavior and looks instead at teacher actions to create, implement, and maintain a learning environment within the classroom.
Everything a teacher does has implications for classroom management, including creating the setting, decorating the room, arranging the chairs, speaking to children and handling their responses, putting routines in place and then executing, modifying, and reinstituting themdeveloping rules, and communicating those rules to the students.
These are all aspects of classroom management. Creating a Learning Environment Creating and implementing a learning environment means careful planning for the start of the school year. The learning environment must be envisioned in both a physical space and a cognitive space.
The physical space of the classroom is managed as the teacher prepares the classroom for the students. Is the space warm and inviting? Does the room arrangement match the teacher's philosophy of learning? Do the students have access to necessary materials?
Are the distracting features of a room eliminated? Attending to these and similar questions aids a teacher in managing the physical space of the classroom. Teachers must also consider the cognitive space necessary for a learning environment.
This cognitive space is based upon the expectations teachers set for students in the classroom and the process of creating a motivational climate. Effective teachers create and implement classroom management practices that cultivate an engaging classroom environment for their students.
Two specific areas of cognitive space that teachers include in their plans are setting expectations i. Setting Expectations In both elementary and secondary classrooms, the start of the school year is crucial to effective management. A significant aspect of this beginning is the teacher's establishment of expectations for student behavior, which are expressed through rules and procedures.
Rules indicate the expectations for behavior in the classroom, and for how one interacts with one's peers and the teacher. Procedures have to do with how things get done.
Rules can be, and frequently are, developed with the students' help, which increases the likelihood of compliance. Ultimately, with or without student input, the teacher must have a picture of what code of behavior is essential for the classroom to function as desired.
Both rules and procedures must be taught, practiced, and enforced consistently.
Included with the development of rules and procedures is the accountability system of the classroom, which must communicate to students how they are held responsible for the academic work that they do. Researchers have confirmed that effective classroom managers begin the year by setting expectations.
At the elementary school level better managers also consistently analyze classroom tasks, teach going-to-school skills, see the classroom through students' eyes, and monitor student behavior from the beginning of the year. These characteristics are similar at the middle school and junior high level, where better managers also explain rules and procedures, monitor student behavior, develop student accountability for work, communicate information, and organize instruction from the first day of school.
Research has shown that teachers whose students demonstrated high task engagement and academic achievement implement a systematic approach toward classroom management at the beginning of the school year.Discussion of plastic surgery in children with Down Syndrome.
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