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Zionism refers to the political movement that supports the reestablishment of the Jewish state in the land of Israel.

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Introduction and Characteristics The New Kingdom witnessed the appearance of the large Egyptian temples - the most impressive form of Ancient Egyptian architecture after the Old Kingdom's pyramids.

There are two types of sanctuary: The largest group of temples is at modern Luxor ancient Thebes.

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The basic temple plan was an approach avenue, often lined by sphinxes, leading to two great entrance pylons usually with two obelisks, emblems of the sun, before them ; next an open court, a hypostyle columned hall and last, the sanctuaries.

This plan could be elaborated by the addition of further courts, halls or colonnades. Only high officials were allowed beyond the great outer court. Two of the best preserved Egyptian temples, both of the Ptolemaic period BCEat Dendera and Edfu, are dedicated to the goddess Hathor and the god Horus respectively.

Capital of a New Egyptian Empire Following the collapse of order at the end of the Middle Kingdom the "Hyksos," mercenary leaders from the Near East, established themselves in the east Delta and gradually extended their rule to Memphis and Middle Egypt during the 2nd Intermediate Period Upper Egypt remained virtually untouched by the invaders.

It was again the princes of Thebes who had to expel the foreigners and found a new united kingdom, thus preparing the way for the most brilliant era of Egyptian civilization.

By pursuing the Hyksos into their Palestinian homeland, and by other conquests in the north and in the south, deep into the Sudan, there arose a powerful Egyptian empire that lasted, with Thebes as its capital and religious centre, for two hundred years. One of the prerequisites of this renaissance was a renewal of the conception of kingship.

According to the new official dogma the legitimate ruler was begotten by the god Amon-Ra and the sister-consort, now exalted to "consort of the god," of the ruling king. In death the ruler entered into the being of his divine father Amon.

At the beginning of the New Kingdom Thebes was still a young city whose historical traditions did not extend beyond the local nomarchs, from whom Neb-hepet-ra Mentuhotep, founder of the Middle Kingdom, had stemmed.

The new capital had to establish its visible supremacy through the superiority of its system of gods and a display of monumental sanctuaries. In the Middle Kingdom Thebes had become the adode of Amon, the creator god, who, by appropriating nearby cults such as that of the primeval fertility god Min of Coptos and finally the sun god Ra of Heliopolis, had developed into a universal divinity and "king of the gods.

Amon-Ra became the national deity. He acquired the Theban goddess Mut as his consort and the moon god Khonsu as their son. From now on this family of gods formed a triad, with coordinated sanctuaries at Karnak.

Each member of the triad possessed near his cult image a sacred barge, and in these the images could be taken to visit one another within Thebes. Apart from these principal Theban gods, the cults of other important deities, such as Ptah of Memphis, had already found their way to Thebes during the Middle Kingdom; these sanctuaries were also expanded under the New Kingdom rulers.

The active construction of temples for the gods and of royal mortuary temples began immediately under the first kings of the Eighteenth Dynasty, and it aimed at giving monumental expression to the various theological systems newly drawn together; their arrangement turned the entire area of Thebes into "Amon's city.

On the east bank stood the royal palaces, with the government buildings and residential quarters between the boundaries of the principal sanctuary of Karnak on the north and the sanctuary of Luxor on the south, both dating from the Middle Kingdom.

On the edge of the west bank, confined by its cliffs, lay the necropolis, which had as its first monumental centre the tomb complex of the founder of the Middle Kingdom in the valley at Deir el Bahari. Here lie buried also the kings of the New Kingdom, but for reasons of security the royal tombs were tunneled into the rock in the lonely Valley of the Kings in the western hills, physically separated from the temples for the worship of the dead.

The royal mortuary temples were ranged at the foot of the cliffs that run in a line north and south, facing the fertile land and the sanctuaries on the east bank: Also on the west bank, further to the south and beyond the limits of the original city there has been found a "primeval hill" that was probably already extant in the Middle Kingdom.

The sanctuaries of the gods of Thebes were certainly independent buildings that were erected for specific reasons and especially in connection with jubilee festivals as "memorials of the kings for their father Amon," but their planning played an important role for the neighboring cults.

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The Temple of Amon-Ra at Karnak The remains of the oldest sanctuary of Karnak, rebuilt in the Twelfth Dynasty, are so scanty that the ground plan can no longer be established with certainty. It formed the core of all later expansions.

Its east-west orientation was determined by the Nile from which a canal probably led to the forecourt of the temple at an early date.

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Because the temple was expanded continually toward the west the landing place, with its small obelisks and an avenue of ram-sphinxes leading to the later main entrance of the sanctuary, was likewise shifted westward, and its existing remains date only from late in the New Kingdom.

The history of the sanctuary is complicated by repeated expansions and by razing old shrines and constructing new ones, in the principal east-west directions and toward neighbouring cults on north and south, a process that lasted from the beginning of the New Kingdom into the Late Period.

Only traces are left of many of the buildings. Accordingly we can only discuss the basic conception of the architectural layout with reference to the more important elements of the temple, and describe the most notable sites.

So many cults gathered around the main temple of Amon-Ra, the king of the gods, that Karnak had the name "Collector of Holy Places. The connection with the Heliopolitan place of worship of Ra, with its pylons, obelisks, and wide courts, was thus supplied by the essence of the national deity.

King Tuthmosis I was responsible for a considerable widening of the boundaries of the Middle Kingdom sanctuary, which he enclosed with stone walls on north, south, and east; on the west, toward the Nile, he built two monumental portals in close succession, between gate towers.

Inside the giant court, against the enclosure walls, he set up statues in the form of Osiris, symbolizing the perpetual renewal of the kingship within the dynastic order: On either side of the gateway in the broader and taller front pylon present pylon IV Tuthmosis I erected sixty-five-foot obelisks of rose granite, of which the southern one still stands.

Between the two pylons IV and V was inserted a splendid hall with papyrus bundle columns and colossal standing figures of the king.Temple & Webster were intrepid with their advertising, but I did like their products, so I was actually pleased to keep seeing th various desks and other furniture on offer, keeping my eye on the discounts.

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The Temple Institute is dedicated to teaching the significance of the Holy Temple to the spiritual well being of all nations, and creating vessels and garments ready for use in the Third Temple service.

The Temple Institute is dedicated to teaching the significance of the Holy Temple to the spiritual well being of all nations, and creating vessels and garments ready for use in the Third Temple service.

Preparing to Enter the Holy Temple